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7. Students’ meaning making in science through representation – constraints and affordances
Wednesday 23rd August Symposia Session II, 09:00 - 11:00
Multiple forms of representation are used in science settings in the production and communication of scientific knowledge. Representations are also a central feature in pedagogical settings when science is taught and learned in schools and universities, and our assumption is that representations operate to structure understanding through their constraints and affordances. The aim of this symposium is to discuss the constraints and subsequent affordances of representations by comparing analytical approaches to how we understand, assess and scaffold students’ learning of science. 
This symposium features four presentations from research groups in three countries, namely Australia, Norway and Sweden. Representations in focus include both digital tools as well as of paper-pencil drawings. The first contribution uses video ethnography in order to investigate the role of drawing as an epistemic practice, acknowledging that”the sciences involve reasoning about relationships between multiple, multi-modal representations, material instruments and phenomena”. The second contribution focuses on students’ meaning making of the greenhouse effect during laboratory settings. Data is generated through head mounted cameras and analysis focuses on shifts in representational modes. The third contribution implements an experimental design to investigate the affordances and constraints of visuohaptic perception in stereoscopic versus 2D visualization of biomolecular interactions. Finally, the fourth contribution analyses students’ learning progression over time through drawing and metaphorical language use. 
The contributors share an interest in the potential of representations in science learning progressions and offer with different theoretical approaches and analytical tools to investigate their constraints and affordances. In our opinion, a methodological discussion on analysis of representations as part of pedagogical practice would align with the theme of the conference. 

Chairperson: Clas Olander, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden
Discussant: Vaughan Prain, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

S7.2.2.1 Drawing as a core epistemic practice in science classrooms
Russell Tytler*, George Aranda, Joseph Ferguson, Radhika Gorur
Deakin University, Australia
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S7.2.2.2 The transition from naturalistic to theoretical representations of the greenhouse effect
Tobias Fredlund*, Erik Knain, Anniken Furberg
University of Oslo, Norway
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S7.2.2.3 Stereoscopic 3D versus 2D interaction with a haptic biomolecular visualization
Gunnar Höst, Lena Tibell, Karljohan Lundin Palmerius, Bengt-Harald Jonsson, Konrad Schönborn*
University of Linköping, Sweden
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S7.2.2.4 Representations as mediational means in students meaning-making about the human body
Clas Olander*1, Åke Ingerman2, Russell Tytler3, Per-Olof Wickman4
1University of Malmö, Sweden, 2University of Gothenburg, Sweden, 3Deakin University, Australia, 4University of Stockholm, Sweden
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